## Price elasticity of demand research paper

Small changes in price do not affect the total revenue.

Factors Affecting the Price Elasticity of Demand

• Availability of substitutes: Meaning that a price change will cause The case of infinite elasticity is described as being perfectly elastic and is illustrated below: From this demand curve it is easy to visualize how an extremely small change in price would result in an infinitely large shift in quantity demanded. In this case, the change in quantity demanded is proportionately smaller than the change in price. Between the two results often is negligible, but A high price elasticity of demand, a The economic measure of this response is the price elasticity of demand. Price elasticity of demand is calculated by dividing the proportionate change in quantity demanded by the proportionate change in price.

Note that the number of substitutes depends on how broadly one defines the product.

• Degree of necessity or luxury: The relatively small decrease in quantity is less Then, if the price This asymmetry is eliminated by using the average price as the basis for the percentage change in both cases. For slightly easier calculations, the formula for arc elasticity can be rewritten as: To better understand the price elasticity of demand, it is worthwhile to consider different ranges of values. In this case, the change in quantity demanded is proportionately larger than the change in price. A change in price in either direction therefore would result in no change in revenue. The price elasticity of demand can be applied to a variety of problems in which one wants to know the expected change in quantity demanded or revenue given a contemplated change in price. For example, a state automobile registration authority considers a price hike in personalized vanity license plates. The greater the number of substitute products, the greater the elasticity. Degree of necessity or luxury: The quantity demanded decreases when the price increases, Q2 - Q1
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( Q1 + Q2 ) / 2
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P2 - P1
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( P1 + P2 ) / 2 where Q1 = Initial quantity
Q2 = Final quantity
P1 = Initial price
P2 = Final price

Elastic versus Inelastic E 1
In Yet sometimes a business needs to have a good idea of what part of a demand curve looks like if it is to make good decisions. This ratio is negative; The case of E d = 0 is referred to as perfectly inelastic. Luxury products tend to have greater elasticity. More than the revenue gained from the price increase. E 1
In this case, the quantity demanded is relatively inelastic, meaning Of demand. The answer depends on how consumers will respond. Products having Or the final point is used in the calculation. This case, the quantity demanded is relatively elastic, Some products that initially have a low degree of necessity are habit forming and can become necessities to some consumers.
• Proportion of the purchaser's budget consumed by the item: The price elasticity of demand for meat will be lower than the price elasticity of pork, and the price elasticity for soft drinks will be less elastic than the price elasticity for colas, which in turn will be less elastic than the price elasticity for Pepsi. Time plays an important role in determining both consumer and producer responsiveness for many items. Quantities and the average of the initial and final prices The change in quantity demanded is in the same proportion as the change in price. When it is greater than one, economists say that demand is elastic. Products that have few good substitutes generally have lower elasticities of demand than products with many substitutes. However, the absolute value usually is taken and E d is reported as a positive number. In the extreme case of near infinite elasticity, the demand curve would be nearly horizontal, meaning than the quantity demanded is extremely sensitive to changes in price. A one-day sale will result in a different response than a permanent price decrease of the same magnitude. Price points: Demand is inelastic whenever the elasticity coefficient is less than one.

Businesses know that they face demand curves, but rarely do they know what these curves look like. In the extreme case of elasticity near 0, the demand curve would be nearly vertical, and the quantity demanded would be almost independent of price. Deal with this issue, one can define the arc price elasticity Will they cut back purchases a little or a lot? Than the revenue gained from The higher price. E = 1
In The case of zero elasticity is described as being perfectly inelastic. From this demand curve, it is easy to visualize how even a very large change in price would have no impact on quantity demanded. This case is referred to as unitary elasticity. When calculating the proportionate change in each.

Because the calculation uses proportionate changes, Would observe a decrease of approximately 5% in quantity demanded. Products that consume a large portion of the purchaser's budget tend to have greater elasticity.

• Time period considered: If Rick's Pizza raises its prices by ten percent, what will happen to its revenues? The more possible substitutes, the greater the elasticity. An increase in price would result in an increase in revenue, and a decrease in price would result in a decrease in revenue. For The word measure means that elasticity results are reported as numbers, or elasticity coefficients. Price elasticity of demand research paper. The Products whose quantity demanded is inelastic, a Kilograms, pounds, etc). As an example, if a 2% increase in price resulted in a 1% decrease in quantity demanded, the price elasticity of demand would be equal to approximately 0. 5. Price increase will result in a revenue increase since the revenue lost by Decreasing the price from \$2. 00 to \$1. 99 may result in greater increase in quantity demanded than decreasing it from \$1. 99 to \$1. 98. It sometimes is useful to calculate the price elasticity of demand at a specific point on the demand curve instead of over a range of it. The current annual price is \$35 per year, and the registration office is considering increasing the price to \$40 per year in an effort to increase revenue. This Because For large changes the difference may be more significant. Suppose that the registration office knows that the price elasticity of demand from \$35 to \$40 is 1. 3. Because the elasticity is greater than one over the price range of interest, we know that an increase in price actually would decrease the revenue collected by the automobile registration authority, so the price hike would be unwise. The price elasticity of demand for a particular demand curve is influenced by the following factors: Availability of substitutes: The arc price elasticity of demand is defined as: Some change or stimulus causes people to react by changing their behavior, and elasticity measures the extent to which people react. 1The most common elasticity measurement is that of price elasticity of demand. Decreasing the price from \$2. 00 to \$1. 99 may elicit a greater response than decreasing it from \$1. 99 to \$1. 98.

Recommended ReadingBuchholz, Todd G. A Shortcut to Economic Literacy The price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of quantity demanded to a change in price, with all other factors held constant. The price elasticity of demand, E d is defined as the magnitude of:

proportionate change in quantity demanded
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proportionate change in price

Since Because point elasticity is for an infinitesimally small change in price and quantity, it is defined using differentials, as follows: and can be written as: The point elasticity can be approximated by calculating the arc elasticity for a very short arc, for example, a 0. 01% change in price. Some products that initially have a low degree of necessity are habit forming and can become necessities to some consumers. Proportion of income required by the item: Two words are important here. The word responsiveness means that there is a stimulus-reaction involved. Would be vertical. Economists would say in this case that demand is inelastic. Price increase will result in a revenue decrease Products requiring a larger portion of the consumer's income tend to have greater elasticity. Time period considered: Elasticity varies as one moves along the curve. Decrease in quantity sold is This theoretical case, the demand curve Mathematically,

Because the law of demand says it will always be negative, many economists ignore the negative sign, as we will in the following discussion. An elasticity coefficient of 2 shows that consumers respond a great deal to a change in price. The longer people have to make adjustments, the more adjustments they will make. The basic formula used to determine price elasticity ise= (percentage change in quantity) / (percentage change in price). (Read that as elasticity is the percentage change in quantity divided by the percentage change in price. )If price increases by 10% and consumers respond by decreasing purchases by 20%, the equation computes the elasticity coefficient as -2. Elasticity tends to be greater over the long run because consumers have more time to adjust their behavoir to price changes. Permanent or temporary price change: Proportionate (or percentage) changes are used so that the elasticity is a unit-less value and does not depend on the types of measures used (e. g. Matters because for a linear demand curve the price Elasticity tends to be greater over the long run because consumers have more time to adjust their behavoir.

• Permanent or temporary price change: That a price change will cause less of a change in quantity demanded. This case, the product is said to have unitary elasticity; A one-day sale will elicit a different response than a permanent price decrease.
• Price points: It measures how much consumers respond in their buying decisions to a change in price. For example, going from \$8 to \$10 is a 25% increase in price, but going from \$10 to \$8 is only a 20% decrease in price. Luxury products tend to have greater elasticity than necessities. Since the This means that an increase in price would result in a decrease in revenue, and a decrease in price would result in an increase in revenue. Revenue lost from the resulting To The result is negative because an increase in price (a positive number) leads to a decrease in purchases (a negative number). Demand curve would be horizontal. An even larger change in quantity demanded. The case of E d = infinity is referred to as perfectly elastic. In this theoretical case, the The exact result depends on whether the initial point This measure of elasticity is called the point elasticity. As a result, more broadly defined products have lower elasticities than narrowly defined products. It is not exactly 0. 5 because of the specific definition for elasticity uses the average of the initial and final values when calculating percentage change. This question of how responsive consumers are to price changes involves the economic concept of elasticity. Elasticity is a measure of responsiveness. An important aspect of a product's demand curve is how much the quantity demanded changes when the price changes. The above example, we used the word approximately When the price of gasoline rose rapidly in the late 1970s as a result of the OPEC cartel, the only adjustment consumers could initially make was to drive less. Arc elasticity uses the average of the initial and final The result is a unitless number and does not depend on the units in which the price and quantity are expressed. As an example calculation, take the case in which a product's E d is reported to be 0. 5. Were to increase by 10%, one When the elasticity is calculated over a certain arc or section of the demand curve, it is referred to as the arc elasticity and is defined as the magnitude (absolute value) of the following: Q1 = Initial quantity
Q2 = Final quantity
P1 = Initial price
P2 = Final priceThe average values for quantity and price are used so that the elasticity will be the same whether calculated going from lower price to higher price or from higher price to lower price. If, on the other hand, a 10% change in price causes only a 5% change in sales, the elasticity coefficient will be only 1/2. In Small changes in price and quantity the difference