Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft. Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a working thesis A reader of this weak thesis might think What reasons? Suppose your literature professor hands out the following assignment in a class on the American novel: After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence.
Included in this working thesis is a reason for the war and some idea of how the two sides disagreed over this reason. That presents a basic or main idea and an argument that you think you can support with evidence. You look again at the evidence, and you decide that you are going to argue that the North believed slavery was immoral while the South believed it upheld the Southern way of life. How are they different? What’s the point of this contrast? When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis, ask yourself the following: Suppose you are taking a course on 19th-century America, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. You are asked to convince your reader of your point of view. Your professor is probably not interested in your opinion of the novel; Ask yourself these same questions and begin to compare Northern and Southern attitudes (perhaps you first think The South believed slavery was right, and the North thought slavery was wrong ). You write: While both sides fought the Civil War over the issue of slavery, the North fought for moral reasons while the South fought to preserve its own institutions. Now you have a working thesis! You think. I loved Huckleberry Finn! Your reader is intrigued but is still thinking, So what? That’s fine—begin to work on comparing scenes from the book and see what you discover. When an assignment asks you to analyze, to interpret, to compare and contrast, to demonstrate cause and effect, or to take a stand on an issue, it is likely that you are being asked to develop a thesis and to support it persuasively. (Check out our handout on understanding assignments for more information. )A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process. However, it’s still not clear what your analysis will reveal. You grab a pad of paper and write: Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn is a great American novel. Why is this thesis weak? This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find the latest publications on this topic. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper. A thesis statement: If your assignment asks you to take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you may need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement near the beginning of your draft.
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If you enjoy using our handouts, we appreciate contributions of acknowledgement. In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in writing. As you write the essay, you will probably begin to characterize these differences more precisely, and your working thesis may start to seem too vague. Compare and contrast the reasons why the North and South fought the Civil War. For more ideas on how to get started, see our handout on brainstorming. If there’s time, run it by your instructor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback. Both the argument and your thesis are likely to need adjustment along the way. Writers use all kinds of techniques to stimulate their thinking and to help them clarify relationships or comprehend the broader significance of a topic and arrive at a thesis statement. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. Maybe you decide that both sides fought for moral reasons, and that they just focused on different moral issues. First, the question asks you to pick an aspect of the novel that you think is important to its structure or meaning—for example, the role of storytelling, the contrasting scenes between the shore and the river, or the relationships between adults and children. Now you write: In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore. Here’s a working thesis with potential: How are they the same? Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Perhaps you are not sure yet, either. It asked you to analyze. Now, push your comparison toward an interpretation—why did one side think slavery was right and the other side think it was wrong? Society and go back to nature. This final thesis statement presents an interpretation of a literary work based on an analysis of its content. Instead, she wants you to think about why it’s such a great novel—what do Huck’s adventures tell us about life, about America, about coming of age, about race, etc.? Free write, make lists, jot down Huck’s actions and reactions. This form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in writing. Most likely a general, appreciative summary of Twain’s novel.
When in doubt, ask your instructor if the assignment requires a thesis statement. You turn on the computer and type out the following: The North and South fought the Civil War for many reasons, some of which were the same and some different. This weak thesis restates the question without providing any additional information. But the question did not ask you to summarize; You have highlighted an important aspect of the novel for investigation. This final thesis presents a way of interpreting evidence that illuminates the significance of the question. Keep in mind that this is one of many possible interpretations of the Civil War—it is not the one and only right answer to the question. After examining the evidence and considering your own insights, you write: Through its contrasting river and shore scenes, Twain’s Huckleberry Finn suggests that to find the true expression of American democratic ideals, one must leave civilized Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. You end up revising the working thesis into a final thesis that really captures the argument in your paper: While both Northerners and Southerners believed they fought against tyranny and oppression, Northerners focused on the oppression of slaves while Southerners defended their own right to self-government. Compare this to the original weak thesis. What does it signify? Of course, for the essay itself to be successful, you must now present evidence from the novel that will convince the reader of your interpretation. We consulted these works while writing the original version of this handout. Eventually you will be able to clarify for yourself, and then for the reader, why this contrast matters. Think about what the reader would expect from the essay that follows: The assignment may not explicitly state that you need a thesis statement because your instructor may assume you will include one. There isn’t one right answer; You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy. Write an analysis of some aspect of Mark Twain’s novel Huckleberry Finn. This will be easy, There are only strong and weak thesis statements and strong and weak uses of evidence. Let’s look at another example. It does not tell the reader where you are heading. Thesis statements for identity theft.